Art

The Photography of Carl Van Vechten

vanvechten

Carl Van Vechten

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      The publication of a new biography on Carl Van Vechten has sparked a renewed interest in his work.  Critic, author and patron of many a Harlem Renaissance artist, Van Vechten was also an accomplished photographer, whose work was described by a New York Telegraph reporter in 1933 as “breathtaking…each [photo] with life and sparkle, vision and intelligence.”

      His access to the artists led to a portfolio of what he called “purely documentary” photographs of a “who’s who” of early-to-mid 20th Century American cultural icons  — including some of the era’s finest writers and musicians. Emily Bernard, author of Carl Van Vechten and the Harlem Renaissance writes that “Van Vechten always saw the act of taking a photograph as entirely personal, and his prolific success was made possible by his vast collection of friends and acquaintances.”

     Van Vechten biographer Bruce Kellner described being the subject of Van Vechten’s camera in Carl Van Vechten and the Irreverent Decades. “It was never the easiest thing to survive with savior-faire. Carl always puttered a little; an assistant set up the lights. Carl adjusted his camera on a wooden easel; the assistant supplied stools, chairs – indeed, chaise lounges or beds – against the draped or otherwise decorated fourth wall. Then the subject sat. The lights were excruciatingly hot, and the room was stuffy. Carl stood behind his camera, staring like a mad scientist in the movies, waiting for the ‘exact moment,’ in which he always believed. Then the shutter began to snap, sometimes quickly, sometimes with syncopated hesitation, always with Carl’s embalmed stare above.”

      What follows are selected photos demonstrating the “sparkle, vision and intelligence” the Telegraph reporter wrote about Van Vechten’s early work, and which continued to show up throughout his career.



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“I’ve photographed everybody, from Matisse to Isamu Noguchi.  My first subject was Anna May Wong, and my second was Eugene O’Neill.”

- Carl Van Vechten



wong
Anna May Wong, 1933


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oneill
Eugene O’Neill, 1933


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“I am very particular, and want certain backgrounds.  I want all sorts of things.”

- Carl Van Vechten


stein
Gertrude Stein, 1935


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“For Langston Hughes, he created a background made of a pastiche of clippings from newspapers all over the country, perhaps a comment on Hughes’s demanding travel schedule.

- Emily Bernard, author of Carl Van Vechten and the Harlem Renaissance


hughes1

Langston Hughes, 1936


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“Bessie Smith survived a session with Van Vechten in 1936.  He had admired Smith since he first heard her earliest records, which he ‘played and played in the early twenties and everybody who came to my apartment was invited to hear them. [Smith] revealed a different side of herself than the one she displayed onstage.  She was ‘cold sober and in a quite, reflective mood.’”


– Emily Bernard



bessiesmith
Bessie Smith, 1936


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“In considering photographs in black and white, I consider backgrounds very seriously.”

– Carl Van Vechten


orson
Orson Welles, 1937



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zora
Zora Neale Hurston, 1938



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“He was fussy about composition, and used elaborate props — ‘robes, costumes, banshee hats, Easter eggs, masks, feathers, cats, marionettes,’ recalled Bruce Kellner.

– Emily Bernard



dali
Salvador Dali, 1939



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mariananderson
Marian Anderson, 1940


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“In the first decade of his career as a photographer, Van Vechten experimented with chiaroscuro lighting, props, and dramatic poses for his subjects.”

- Emily Bernard


ellafitz
Ella Fitzgerald, 1940



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lenahorne
Lena Horne, 1941



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pearlbailey
Pearl Bailey, 1946


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“‘Holiday was ‘here all night,’Van Vechten remembered, ‘and she was very difficult to break down.  I didn’t know her, and she was very difficult, and it took me at least two hours to break her down, and then she became so friendly she didn’t want to go at all.’  He finally ‘broke her down’ by showing her the pictures he’d taken of Bessie Smith, whom she held in great esteem…Four years before he died, after nearly thirty years and thousands of photographs, Van Vechten called his photographs of Billie Holiday not only some of his best, but the best ones of Holiday ever taken.”


- Emily Bernard



billieholidaymarch11
Billie Holiday, 1949



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“Van Vechten was particularly proud of the range of his photographs of blacks.  ‘One of the unique features of the collection is a set of photographs of Negroes which I have made myself during the past ten years,’ he told readers of the Crisis in 1942, ‘perhaps the largest group of photographs of notable Negro personalities ever made by one man.’”

- Emily Bernard



jbaker
Josephine Baker, 1951


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earthakitt
Eartha Kitt, 1952

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jamesbaldwin

James Baldwin, 1955




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bernard
Carl Van Vechten and the Harlem Renaissance, by Emily Bernard

Carl Van Vechten’s Portraits at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library


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Carl Van Vechten and the Harlem Renaissance, a Smithsonian production





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For more on the Harlem Renaissance:


Visit our Historic Harlem Tour

Read our interview with Zora Neale Hurston scholar Carla Kaplan

Visit our “Art of Romare Bearden” page